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Volume 106 - Number 4 - Winter 1991-92

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How Countries Democratize
Samuel P. Huntington analyzes the diverse political processes through which thirty-five countries have moved from authoritarianism toward democracy in the past fifteen years and derives guidelines from these experiences for future "democratizers."

pp. 579-616

The Urban Underclass and the Poverty Paradox
Paul E. Peterson discusses four different theories using the concept of underclass to explain poverty in the United States and summarizes the empirical evidence with respect to each of them. He is critical of some aspects of the recent major work on the urban underclass, William Julius Wilson's The Truly Disadvantaged.

pp. 617-637

Another Look at The Truly Disadvantaged
William Julius Wilson recapitulates the major arguments he advanced in The Truly Disadvantaged and assesses issues raised by authors from different academic disciplines who addressed the major arguments in the book. Wilson reaffirms his own analysis of the causes of the urban underclass.

pp. 639-656

International Collaboration in Armaments Production: A Second-Best Solution
Ethan Barnaby Kapstein argues that international arrangements within NATO to produce advanced weapons systems represent a "second-best solution" to defense procurement. Rather than purchase arms off the shelf from the most efficient supplier, NATO members have used arms collaboration to maintain their domestic defense industrial bases. To the extent that arms collaboration has encouraged the global spread of defense-related technology, it has made conventional arms control more difficult to achieve.

pp. 657-675

Where Have All the Consumers Gone?
Loree Bykerk and Ardith Maney examine congressional hearing data to find that organized consumer interests remained active in Washington during the decade of business resurgence. Representatives of state and local officials also played prominent roles in consumer protection.

pp. 677-693

Diplomatic History--State Department Style
Wilbur Edel claims that the State Department has distorted post-World War II diplomatic history by deliberately omitting important facts in the record of American intervention in Iran and Guatemala while including documents that misrepresent the United States government's part in those events. He finds no justification for such misrepresentation in volumes of Foreign Relations of the United States that are published twenty or thirty years after the fact.

pp. 695-712

The Exemplary Presidency: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the American Political Tradition, Philip Abbott
Reviewed by Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.

pp. 713-714

The Juggler: Franklin Roosevelt as Wartime Statesman, Warren F. Kimball
Reviewed by Michael E. Parrish

pp. 714-716

An American Life: The Autobiography, Ronald Reagan
Reviewed by Bert A. Rockman

pp. 716-717

The Dynamics of Domestic Politics and Arms Control: The SALT II Treaty Ratification Debate, Dan Caldwell
Reviewed by Raymond L. Garthoff

pp. 717-718

Falling Friends: The United States and Regime Change Abroad, Martin Staniland
Reviewed by Jorge I. Dominguez

pp. 719-720

The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for 21st-Century Capitalism, Robert B. Reich
Reviewed by Vicki Smith

pp. 720-721

The Next Century, David Halberstam
Reviewed by Robert A. Divine

pp. 721-722

Television and the Crisis of Democracy, Douglas Kellner
Reviewed by Bruce A. Williams

pp. 722-724

Media Messages in American Presidential Elections, Diana Owen
Reviewed by Doris A. Graber

pp. 724-725

The Cynical Society: The Culture of Politics and the Politics of Culture in American Life, Jeffrey C. Goldfarb
Reviewed by Richard M. Merelman

pp. 725-727

Churchill, the Great Game and Total War, David Jablonsky
Reviewed by Fraser Harbutt

pp. 727-728

Sheathing the Sword: The U.N. Secretary-General and the Prevention of International Conflict, Thomas E. Boudreau
Reviewed by Leon Gordenker

pp. 728-729

Gorbachev and His Enemies: The Struggle for Perestroika, Baruch A. Hazan
Reviewed by Martha Merritt

pp. 730-731

George Ball, Vietnam, and the Rethinking of Containment, David L. Di Leo
Reviewed by Marilyn B. Young

pp. 731-732

Exporting Democracy: The United States and Latin America, Abraham Lowenthal
Reviewed by Anthony Pereira

pp. 732-733

East-West Trade and the Atlantic Alliance, David A. Baldwin and Helen V. Milner
Reviewed by Bruce W. Jentleson

pp. 733-735

Sadat and After: Struggles for Egypt's Political Soul, Raymond William Baker
Reviewed by Lisa Anderson

pp. 735-736

Party and Policy in Israel: The Battle between Hawks and Doves, Samuel J. Roberts
Reviewed by Shlomo Slonim

pp. 736-737

Echoes of the Intifada: Regional Repercussions of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict, Rex Brynen
Reviewed by Ann M. Lesch

pp. 738-739

America Insecure: Arms Transfers, Global Interventionism, and the Erosion of National Security, Miles D. Wolpin
Reviewed by Philip W. Dyer

pp. 739-741

After the Cold War: Questioning the Morality of Nuclear Deterrence, Charles W. Kegley, Jr. and Kenneth L. Schwab
Reviewed by Wade Huntley

pp. 741-742

America Recommitted: United States National Interests in a Restructured World, Donald E. Nuechterlein
Reviewed by John Spanier

pp. 742-743

Coercion, Capital and European States: AD 990-1990, Charles Tilly
Reviewed by Thomas Ertman

pp. 743-745

Congress, Human Nature, and the Federal Debt: Essays on the Political Psychology of Deficit Spending, Cole S. Brembeck
Reviewed by Ross K. Baker

pp. 745-746

The Republic of Choice: Law, Authority and Culture, Lawrence Friedman
Reviewed by Frank J. Macchiarola

pp. 746-747

Watch on the Right: Conservative Intellectuals in the Reagan Era, J. David Hoeveler, Jr.
Reviewed by Thomas Fleming

pp. 747-749

Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe, Ferenc Fehér and Andrew Arato
Reviewed by Ellen Comisso

pp. 749-751

From Yalta to Glasnost: The Dismantling of Stalin's Empire, Ferenc Fehér and Agnes Heller
Reviewed by Stephen White

pp. 751-752

China's Changing Relations with the Middle East, John Calabrese
Reviewed by Steven I. Levine

pp. 752-753

Electing a President: The Markle Commission Research on Campaign '88, Bruce Buchanan
Reviewed by L. Sandy Maisel

pp. 753-754

Ethnic Identity: The Transformation of White America, Richard D. Alba
Reviewed by Andrew Greeley

pp. 754-756

Blacks in the White Establishment? A Study of Race and Class in America, G. William Domhoff and Richard L. Zweigenhaft
Reviewed by Leslie B. Inniss

pp. 756-757

Robust Unionism: Innovations in the Labor Movement, Arthur B. Shostak
Reviewed by Sumner M. Rosen

pp. 757-759

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